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Aerospace and Defense

Welcome to the paper archives. To download papers, click on the title from the list below. We encourage sharing so be sure to tell a friend or colleague.

UAS Criticality Stratification for Entry into the National Airspace System | 2006
Hoyt Lougee, Brian Bowe, Vince Dovydaitis, Garrett Thurston

The FAA requires aircraft to be certified, including Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs), to gain routine access to the National Airspace System (NAS). Certification has, therefore, become an important milestone in the UAS evolution and ultimate commercial viability. This paper identifies a practical approach to identifying system criticality, which is integral to the process of certifying UAS software. Furthermore, this paper will consider inherent risks and failures of UAS within a variety of operating environments and will conclude with a concrete proposal for a UAS criticality stratification approach.

Drive Top-Line Growth in the Consolidating Aerospace Market | 2006
Ron Rubbico, Hoyt Lougee

The massive Aerospace industry consolidation has left fewer top-tier customers and platform opportunities for manufacturers. As a result, they have turned to mergers, acquisitions, and reorganizations to realign product strategies and provide the more-integrated solutions demanded by the rapidly consolidating supply chain. This has strained the ability of many companies to develop effective technology strategies that support their realigned business objectives. As a result, manufacturers are increasingly experiencing cost overruns, production delays, and deferred revenue. This paper examines the factors that are critical to align business and technology strategies to extract the most market leverage and top-line growth from combined or restructured product lines.

Who's Going To Take Us To The Moon This Time? | 2006
A Discussion of the Workforce Crisis in the Aerospace Industry
Alan Aghan

On January 14, 2004, President Bush had announced a new vision for the Nation's space exploration program, committing the United States to a long-term human and robotic program to explore the solar system. Funding this type of national effort would be a challenge, but this time it may not be primarily a question of money. Going to the moon (and beyond) requires the talents of the best technical minds our nation can produce. However—in the foreseeable future there will be an increasing shortage of technically skilled and experienced workers in the Aerospace industry and the situation is reaching crisis level. This paper discusses this assertion, its causes, its implications and some possible ways to address the problem.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Software Certification Considerations | 2005
Hoyt Lougee, Garrett Thurston

As an avionics subsystem manufacturer, you will face a critical challenge in aligning your significant research and development investments with the final FAA guidance for development and certifiability/acceptability of UAVs and their subsystems. This white paper will show how the FAA-adopted software guidance for manned-applications – RTCA/DO-178B and RTCA/DO-278 – can be applied to UAV certification. We will then discuss the transition necessary for the military and scientific communities in aligning their UAV embedded software processes to DO-178B and DO-278.

Strategic Product Development in Aerospace. Are You Building the Right Product? | 2005
Hoyt Lougee, Norm Delisle

Product-development organizations face many difficult challenges in ensuring that their products fully support the overarching business strategy. This paper presents proven approaches for establishing and aligning business, product, and technology strategies, enabling an organization to ensure that downstream tradeoffs are made in the context of business goals and objectives. These approaches provide the ability to communicate and monitor the critical success attributes throughout the product-development process. In addition, we discuss how these mechanisms ease the communication friction between the Senior-Management, Marketing, and Engineering organizations.

The Road to RTCA/DO-178B – A Transition Guide | 2004
Using Formal Gap Analysis to Identify Alternative Strategies and Reduce the Cost of Compliance
Hoyt Lougee

Commercial avionics manufacturers are constantly seeking ways to address the high-cost, high-risk software certification task by transitioning to improved, more-efficient DO-178B complaint approaches. This white paper provides insight into DO-178B guidance and the activities necessary to analyze and resolve the gap from where you are to where you need to be. It is intended to provide a clear manager-level view of critical aspects of the transition to certifiable software, including the primary means of compliance, alternative methods, critical parameters, and both formal and informal constraints.

Bottom-Line Impact from Certifiable Software Reuse: A New Approach | 2004
Hoyt Lougee, Vince Dovydaitis

Often with certifiable-software development, reuse strategies are developed by the technical staff and then shoe-horned into the overall corporate strategy. The costs, schedule, risks, and staffing considerations vital to competitive corporate performance are considered after the fact and are often based on a cursory analysis of these key business drivers. Effective planning, on the other hand, turns the process properly front-to-back. In this white paper, we describe Foliage's framework for successful reuse plan development.

Product Line Architectures and the Integrated Cockpit | 2003
Hoyt Lougee , Ron Rubbico

Avionics manufacturers are successfully applying product line architectures to save costs, shorten schedules, and reduce risk—and to provide more flexibility and functionality in the cockpit than ever before. Successful product lines are based on carefully constructed product line concepts that address key business goals. Lowered costs, shortened schedules, and reduced risk are benefits provided by well planned and executed product line development. In this paper, also discussed are some of the unique challenges inherent in PLAs in airborne avionics systems, as well as strategies to achieve compliance with DO-178B software processes.

Certifiable Aviation Software: A Survival Guide for Senior Managers | 2003
Hoyt Lougee, Rob Firmin

Certifiable software development increasingly accounts for product development cost overruns, schedule woes, and corporate credibility problems—ultimately affecting competitive advantage. Senior management must have insight into what constitutes the best software team, the effects and pitfalls associated with software process improvement efforts, and an appreciation of all the staffing options available. This paper explores how software development affects competitive advantage and the effects of key competitive discriminators in two common business models in the aviation industry. We then explore strategic decisions and influences that drive certifiable-software development in six areas: People, Process, Tools, Scope, Schedule, and Support.

Reuse and DO-178B Certified Software | 2002
Hoyt Lougee

The high cost of certifiable software development, especially in lean economic times, has driven heightened interest in certifiable software reuse. Reuse, already a complex undertaking, has additional complexities with respect to certification issues. This paper, from a certifiability perspective, defines reuse, discusses reuse drivers and typical reuse scenarios, and details the various types of reuse. In addition, a brief overview of a reuse analysis and implementation approach is presented.

A Hybrid Object-Oriented Approach to Avionics Software Development | 2002
Vince Dovydaitis

In this paper we discuss a hybrid approach that employs OO technology for requirements analysis and software design, but uses a traditional structured language, C, for implementation. By integrating the two into a single process, we are able to derive the benefits of OO technology while avoiding the less deterministic behavior of current OO implementation technology. Also presented are strategies for representing objects in C and discuss the benefits and challenges of the approach in light of the safety objectives set forth in RTCA DO-178B.

HUMS – Certification Considerations for Current and Emerging Technology | 2002
Hoyt Lougee

The next generation Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) will become smarter and more integrated, and will continue to change how aircraft are maintained. New directions include shifts to diagnosis and future maintenance-requirement prediction, early indication of potential problems, component management, information generation, and aircraft system-wide collection and analysis. This paper explores the ramifications of several key elements of the FAA's Advisory Circular 29 MG 15 in terms of the current and emerging health and usage monitoring technology.

DO-178B Certified Software – A Formal Reuse Analysis Approach | 2002
(A Companion Paper to Reuse and DO-178B Certified Software)
Hoyt Lougee

Since certified software is expensive software, reuse is a powerful tool to help control the overall project's certified software impact. A documented ROI analysis that considers both cost and time must be performed to select the optimal approach. This paper details a seven-step formal reuse analysis and implementation approach. Rigorously following these steps will allow you to lower development risk, increase ROI, and help ensure successful, profitable software development. This paper is a companion paper to Reuse and DO-178B Certified Software, which defines reuse, discusses reuse drivers and typical reuse strategies, details the various types of reuse from a certifiability perspective, and introduces the seven-step formal reuse analysis and implementation approach.

Computer Graphics Techniques and Tradeoffs in Avionics Displays | 2002
Kevin Platt

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) displays present significant computer graphics challenges. In order to meet the requirements set forth for airborne multipurpose electronic displays, not only must the display quality be high, but also the refresh rate must be sufficient to provide smooth animation. This paper presents techniques that may be leveraged to produce fast, high-quality graphics on low-resolution displays and discusses the associated memory implications and tradeoffs.

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